Tag Archives: tutorials

20 Useful Terminal Commands and Tools that you May Need in Ubuntu/Linux Mint


Terminal is a text-based interface that grants users direct access to the UNIX system. You can use Terminal to run some specific commands, create files/folders, change system settings, and any other features that aren’t available via programs with GUI.
In this article, I have collected 20 tools and commands that can be useful for Ubuntu/Linux Mint users. If you have more interesting commands or tools, you can mention them below.

1. Make An ISO From A Folder

If you want to make an iso file from a directory containing other files and sub-directories via the terminal, you can use the following command:

mkisofs -o image.iso -R /path/to/folder/

If you wish to backup the home folder, use this command:

mkisofs -o image.iso -R $HOME

2. Remove Non-Empty Folder

To remove a non-empty folder from the command line, you can use this command:

rm -rf /path/to/folder/

3. Checking Current CPU Architecture (32-bit or 64-bit)

To list your processor architecture in Ubuntu/Linux Mint, use one of these commands:

uname -m

or

arch

or

 file /bin/bash | cut -d’ ‘ -f3

4. Generate Random Passwords

To generate random passwords via the terminal, you can use the following commands:

   a – makepasswd

makepasswd is a command line tool for generating passwords in Ubuntu/Linux Mint. Install it with this command:

 sudo apt-get install makepasswd

To generate a password with 20 characters, enter this command:

makepasswd –chars=20

b- OpenSSL

You can also use OpenSSL to generate random passwords using this simple command:

openssl rand -base64 20

5. Check Uptime

To check for how long your computer or laptop has been running since you powered it on, issue this command:

uptime

To monitor system uptime in real-time, use this command:

 watch -n 1 uptime

6. Check Information About Your Video Card

To list information about your graphics card (Nvidia, AMD, Intel, etc.), enter this command:

 lspci -v -s `lspci | awk ‘/VGA/{print $1}’`

7. Download And Extract Tar Files In One Command

If you want to extract an archive file after being downloaded in a single command, you can use the following command for tar files:

 wget URL-To-TAR-File -O – | tar xfz –

Here is an example:

 wget http://garr.dl.sourceforge.net/project/multibootusb/MultiBootUSB_4.7.tar.gz -O – | tar xfz –

8. Block/Unblock Wifi/Bluetooth

To disable wifi or Bluetooth in Ubuntu/Linux Mint, we can simply use the rfkill command line tool. To deactivate wifi, enter this command:

rfkill block wlan

For Bluetooth:

rfkill block bluetooth

To unblock WiFi, enter this command:

rfkill unblock wlan

For Bluetooth:

rfkill unblock bluetooth

9. Check CPU Temperature

To get the current temperature of your processor, issue this command:

acpi -t

To check CPU temp in real-time, run this command:

watch -n 1 acpi -t

10. Change Read Speed Of A CD/DVD

Let’s first get the maximum read speed of your optical drive with this command:

eject -X

To increase/decrease read speed of a CD/DVD inserted into your optical drive, enter this command followed by the desired speed:

 eject -x 4

For more than one optical disc drive, use this command:

 eject /dev/cdrom -x 4

11. Check RAM Speed

To check memory speed from the command line, run this command:

 sudo dmidecode -t 17 | awk -F”:” ‘/Speed/ { print $2 }’

12. Read/Write Speed Of A Hard Disk

To check read/write speed of your hard drive on the terminal, use this command:

sudo hdparm -tT /dev/sda

13. Monitor Network Usage

IPTraf is a command line utility that allows to monitor network activities in real-time. Install it in Ubuntu/Linux Mint with this command:

 sudo apt-get install iptraf

Start monitoring using this command:

sudo iptraf

14- Downloading Websites

If you want to download an entire website via the terminal, enter this command:

 wget –recursive  –page-requisites –convert-links www.domain.com

15. Check Gmail Unread Messages

To check for unread messages in your Gmail account, use this command:

curl -u GMAILUSER –silent “https://mail.google.com/mail/feed/atom” | perl -ne ‘print “\t” if //; print “$2\n” if /<(title|name)>(.*)<\/\1>/;’

16. Monitor HDD Temperature

Use hddtemp to monitor hard disk temperature on the terminal. Run these commands:

sudo apt-get install hddtemp

sudo hddtemp /dev/sda

17. Force Kill Apps

To force close an unresponsive software, run xkill from the terminal then click the software’s window to close it.

18. Screen Recording

To capture your screen and record it in a video, use ffmpeg:

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg

ffmpeg -f x11grab -s wxga -r 25 -i :0.0 -sameq output.mpg

19. Check Current Kernel Version

You can simply use this command:

uname -r

20. Dtrx

The dtrx tool allows to extract most archive files without the hassle of memorizing the various extraction commands. To install it, run this command:

sudo apt-get install dtrx

Here are some examples:

dtrx file.zip

dtrx file.tar.gz

dtrx file.7z

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Colored Pencils effect with Gimp 2.8 and G’MIC

Too much perfection is not so attractive. Yes, I am talking about digital design works. They are too much perfect. We get perfect gradients but no texture looks. How about merging the better of both worlds? Thanks to #gimp and one of his plugins #G’MIC. Here I will be stimulating a very cool effect. Lets get started!
Here, what we are actually doing is Colored Pencils effect with Gimp 2.8 and G’MIC. So, you need to download these things first.
1. Gimp Download link
2. G’MIC Plugins  Download link

So if you downloaded those those things or already have lets go like this.

Choosing right images or illustration
For better results, you need image/illustration of low contrast because here we will be using soft light mode which changes local contrast pf image/illustration. If there is too much details in image/illustration, you can aplly light blur from Filter>Blur>Blur

Its the time to apply Texture pass. Duplicate the background layer for the backup. Now go to Menu and select Filter > G’MIC
An window will pop out with lost of filter and parameters. Just go to Black & White > Hard Sketch filter and Adjust the settings as in figure below.

Now if you are done, apply the settings and click OK. Now you will see image  like this.

 

Be cool. You dont need to be weird. Lets fix it by changing the blending mode from normal to soft light.
Duplicate the layer to increase the effect.  You are able to see the texture like the image below.

 

We created texture pass. Now the time is to create contour pass. This will help to balance the contrast and brightness on the image. Also makes the edges more visible.  Do you remember that we had duplicate the original layer of image/illustration? Put one og that layer (original) to the top of all those layers.  Again go to the menu and select Filter> G’MIC  and again select the same filter  Black & White > Hard Sketch filter and Adjust the settings as in figure below.

Apply the filter and change the blending mode from normal to softlight as we did before. This makes the contours more  marked and also generates an outline in the highlights as we see on the figure.  Darker parts now tend to be brighter washing the blacks in the image.
[c attid=”526″ aption id=”attachment_526″ align=”alignnone” width=”726″]

 

Conclusion

Is that all? No way, we have only explored a filter and a blending mode. Possibly all this process can be converted into a new filter with some options. Let me see your experience with gimp and G’MIC pligin. Share me your work via mail (rsthdn@gmail.com) or on our facbook / Google Plus page/groups/community.

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